Latest Meditation Research

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  • MEDITATION IN THE LITERATURE
      PubMed Abstracts - Some citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. [Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). NCBI Copyright and Disclaimers]
    • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for College Students With ADHD. -
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      A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for College Students With ADHD.

      J Atten Disord. 2016 Dec 01;:1087054716686183

      Authors: Gu Y, Xu G, Zhu Y

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: Between 2% and 8% of college students meet criteria for ADHD, with increased incidence in recent decades. There are very few clinical trials conducted on the meaningful intervention of ADHD in college. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) effectively treats college students with ADHD and could be more feasibly applied in college mental health clinics.
      METHOD: Fifty-four undergraduates with ADHD between ages 19 and 24 were randomized to receive either MBCT or wait-list (WL) during a 6-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and related outcomes were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up.
      RESULTS: Participants receiving MBCT group showed greater treatment response rates (57%-71% vs. 23%-31%) and experience less anxiety and depression, and greater levels of mindfulness; MBCT participants show greater improvement on neuropsychological performance.
      CONCLUSION: MBCT may be a useful intervention for college students with ADHD, improving participants' ADHD symptoms, mindfulness, and sustained attention.

      PMID: 28038496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Mindfulness practice as a teaching-learning strategy in higher education: A qualitative exploratory pilot study. -
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      Mindfulness practice as a teaching-learning strategy in higher education: A qualitative exploratory pilot study.

      Nurse Educ Today. 2016 Dec 22;50:92-96

      Authors: Schwind JK, McCay E, Beanlands H, Schindel Martin L, Martin J, Binder M

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Students in higher education are experiencing stress and anxiety, such that it impedes their academic success and personal wellbeing. Brief mindfulness meditation and lovingkindness meditation are two aspects of mindfulness practice that have the potential to decrease students' feelings of anxiety and stress, and increase their sense of wellbeing and capacity for compassion for self and for others.
      PURPOSE: To explore how undergraduate and graduate students experience brief instructor-guided mindfulness practice; specifically, on their feelings of stress and anxiety, and their sense of wellbeing.
      STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative exploratory pilot study.
      PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Fifty-two graduate and undergraduate students in different disciplines within a community services faculty of an urban university.
      METHODS: Brief (five-minute) instructor-guided mindfulness practices were offered over eight weeks at the beginning and end of classes. Participating students were asked to also engage in individual home practice of five to fifteen-minute mindful breathing four to five times a week and to keep a log of their experiences. At end of term, individual and group feedback (N=13) was elicited from participating students. Six of the seven instructors who guided the mindfulness practices shared their experiences of the mindfulness activities.
      OUTCOMES: Students reported an increased sense of calm, and a decreased feeling of anxiety. Lovingkindness meditation was mostly perceived as a positive way to close the class. Their instructors also observed that the brief mindful breathing practice at start of class helped students become more grounded and focused before engaging in the course content. Challenges encountered focused on the need to provide more in-depth information about mindfulness, as it relates to higher education teaching-learning contexts, to both students and participating instructors.
      CONCLUSIONS: Implications for education suggest further research that includes fuller experiential training of participating instructors, as well as provision of a more comprehensive background on mindfulness to students.

      PMID: 28038370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Meditation and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. -
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      Meditation and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

      J Hypertens. 2016 Dec 28;:

      Authors: Shi L, Zhang D, Wang L, Zhuang J, Cook R, Chen L

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVES: We meta-analyzed the effect of meditation on blood pressure (BP), including both transcendental meditation and non-transcendental meditation interventions.
      METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the BP responses to meditation interventions through a systematic literature search of the PubMed, ABI/INFORM, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases (from January 1980 to October 2015). We meta-analyzed the change in SBP and DBP, stratified by type of meditation (transcendental meditation vs. non-transcendental meditation intervention) and by type of BP measurement [ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) vs. non-ABPM measurement].
      RESULTS: Nineteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Among the studies using the ABPM measurement, the pooled SBP effect estimate was -2.49 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -7.51, 2.53] for transcendental meditation intervention (statistically insignificant) and -3.77 mmHg (95% CI: -5.33, -2.21) for non-transcendental meditation interventions, whereas the pooled DBP effect estimate was -4.26 mmHg (95% CI: -6.21, -2.31) for transcendental meditation interventions and -2.18 mmHg (95% CI: -4.28, -0.09) for non-transcendental meditation interventions. Among the studies using the non-ABPM measurement, the pooled SBP effect estimate from transcendental meditation interventions was -5.57 mmHg (95% CI: -7.41, -3.73) and was -5.09 mmHg with non-transcendental meditation intervention (95% CI: -6.34, -3.85), whereas the pooled effect size in DBP change for transcendental meditation interventions was -2.86 mmHg (95% CI: -4.27, -1.44) and was -2.57 mmHg (95% CI: -3.36, -1.79) for non-transcendental meditation interventions.
      CONCLUSION: Non-transcendental meditation may serve as a promising alternative approach for lowering both SBP and DBP. More ABPM-measured transcendental meditation interventions might be needed to examine the benefit of transcendental meditation intervention on SBP reduction.

      PMID: 28033127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS. -
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      The Effect of Group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Consciousness Yoga Program on Quality of Life and Fatigue Severity in Patients with MS.

      J Caring Sci. 2016 Dec;5(4):325-335

      Authors: Nejati S, Rajezi Esfahani S, Rahmani S, Afrookhteh G, Hoveida S

      Abstract
      Introduction: The chronic nature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), have can leave devastating effects on quality of life and fatigue. The present research aimed to study the effect of group Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and conscious yoga program on the quality of life and fatigue severity among patients with MS. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with intervention and control groups. The statistical population included all members to MS Society of Tehran Province, 24 of whom diagnosed with MS were selected as the sample based on the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned into the test group (12 patients) and the control group (12 patients). MS Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were used for data collection. Subjects in the test group underwent a MBSR and conscious yoga program in 8 two-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The study findings showed that there was a significant difference between subjects in the experimental and control groups in terms of mean score of some subscales of quality of life including physical health, role limitations due to physical and emotional problems, energy, emotional well-being, health distress, health perception, and satisfaction with sexual function, overall quality of life, and fatigue severity. Conclusion: The results show that the program is effective in reduction of fatigue severity and improving some subscales of quality of life in MS patients. Hence, this supportive method can be used as an effective way for improving quality of life and relieving fatigue in MS patients.

      PMID: 28032077 [PubMed]

    • What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft. -
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      What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft.

      Psychol Med. 2016 Dec 29;:1-10

      Authors: Crane RS, Brewer J, Feldman C, Kabat-Zinn J, Santorelli S, Williams JM, Kuyken W

      Abstract
      There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts. The framework addresses the essential characteristics of the program and of teacher. MBPs: are informed by theories and practices that draw from a confluence of contemplative traditions, science, and the major disciplines of medicine, psychology and education; underpinned by a model of human experience which addresses the causes of human distress and the pathways to relieving it; develop a new relationship with experience characterized by present moment focus, decentering and an approach orientation; catalyze the development of qualities such as joy, compassion, wisdom, equanimity and greater attentional, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and engage participants in a sustained intensive training in mindfulness meditation practice, in an experiential inquiry-based learning process and in exercises to develop understanding. The paper's aim is to support clarity, which will in turn support the systematic development of MBP research, and the integrity of the field during the process of implementation in the mainstream.

      PMID: 28031068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Coping with stress in medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial using a mindfulness-based stress prevention training (MediMind) in Germany. -
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      Coping with stress in medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial using a mindfulness-based stress prevention training (MediMind) in Germany.

      BMC Med Educ. 2016 Dec 28;16(1):316

      Authors: Kuhlmann SM, Huss M, Bürger A, Hammerle F

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: High prevalence rates of psychological distress in medical training and later professional life indicate a need for prevention. Different types of intervention were shown to have good effects, but little is known about the relative efficacy of different types of stress management interventions, and methodological limitations have been reported. In order to overcome some of these limitations, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind) on measures of distress, coping and psychological morbidity.
      METHODS: We report on a prospective randomized controlled trial with three study conditions: experimental treatment (MediMind), standard treatment (Autogenic Training) and a control group without treatment. The sample consisted of medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester. They completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, after the training and at one year follow-up. Distress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress, TICS) was assessed as the primary outcome and coping (Brief COPE) as a co-primary outcome. Effects on the psychological morbidity (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI) as a secondary outcome were expected one year after the trainings.
      RESULTS: Initially, N = 183 students were randomly allocated to the study groups. At one year follow-up N = 80 could be included into the per-protocol analysis: MediMind (n =31), Autogenic Training (n = 32) and control group (n = 17). A selective drop-out for students who suffered more often from psychological symptoms was detected (p = .020). MANCOVA's on TICS and Brief COPE revealed no significant interaction effects. On the BSI, a significant overall interaction effect became apparent (p = .002, η2partial = .382), but post hoc analyses were not significant. Means of the Global Severity Index (BSI) indicated that MediMind may contribute to a decrease in psychological morbidity.
      CONCLUSION: Due to the high and selective dropout rates, the results cannot be generalized and further research is necessary. Since the participation rate of the trainings was high, a need for further prevention programs is indicated. The study gives important suggestions on further implementation and evaluation of stress prevention in medical schools.
      TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is recorded at German Clinical Trials Register under the number DRKS00005354 (08.11.2013).

      PMID: 28031044 [PubMed - in process]

    • Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Weight-Loss Intervention on Sleep Quality Among Adults with Obesity: Data from the SHINE Randomized Controlled Trial. -
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      Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Weight-Loss Intervention on Sleep Quality Among Adults with Obesity: Data from the SHINE Randomized Controlled Trial.

      J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Dec 28;:

      Authors: Adler E, Dhruva A, Moran PJ, Daubenmier J, Acree M, Epel ES, Bacchetti P, Prather AA, Mason A, Hecht FM

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbance is a common problem among adults with obesity. Mindfulness interventions have been shown to improve sleep quality in various populations but have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mindfulness-based weight-loss intervention with an active control on self-reported sleep quality among adults with obesity.
      METHOD: This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial and included 194 adults with a body mass index in the range 30-45 kg/m(2). The treatment intervention included mindfulness-based eating and stress-management practices, and the active control intervention included training in progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Both groups received identical diet and exercise guidelines in 17 group sessions conducted over 5.5 months that were matched for time, attention, and social support. The primary outcome of this analysis was between-group change in self-reported sleep quality, which was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months.
      RESULTS: Between-group differences in mean PSQI change scores in the mindfulness group (n = 100) compared to the control group (n = 94) were -0.27 (-0.68, 1.22; p = 0.58) at 6 months, -0.57 (-0.35, 1.50; p = 0.22) at 12 months, and -0.50 (-0.53, 1.53; p = 0.34) at 18 months, all in the direction of more sleep improvement in the mindfulness group but none reaching statistical significance. In the mindfulness group, average weekly minutes of meditation practice time was associated with improved sleep quality from baseline to 6 months.
      CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant evidence was found that a weight-loss program that incorporates mindfulness improves self-reported sleep quality compared to a control diet/exercise intervention that included PMR. Within the mindfulness group, average weekly minutes of mindfulness practice was associated with improved sleep quality.

      PMID: 28029852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform. -
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      Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

      Chin J Integr Med. 2016 Dec 27;:

      Authors: Fang L, Fang M, Guo MM

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation.
      METHODS: A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis.
      RESULTS: Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (P<0.05). The result of overall similarity coefficient cluster analysis showed that two kinds of manipulation forces curves were existed between the expert group and the skilled group.
      CONCLUSION: Pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

      PMID: 28028714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depression and Anxiety in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome. -
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      The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depression and Anxiety in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome.

      Depress Res Treat. 2016;2016:9816481

      Authors: Panahi F, Faramarzi M

      Abstract
      Objective. Little research has been done regarding the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on the PMS symptoms and depression and anxiety symptoms in women with PMS. Design. In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 60 students at Mazandaran University with mild to moderate PMS who had depressive symptoms (Beck depression scores 16-47) were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n = 30) or a control (n = 30) group. The experimental group received MBCT in eight group sessions (120 min each) over 8 weeks. The control group received no intervention. All participants completed the Premenstrual Assessment Scale (PAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at the beginning and the end of the study. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results. At the end of study, the experimental and control groups showed the following scores, respectively (mean ± SD): depression, 15.73 ± 6.99 and 25.36 ± 7.14; anxiety, 16.96 ± 7.78 and 26.60 ± 9.38; and total PAS, 42.86 ± 8.02 and 58.93 ± 8.47. MBCT improved depression and anxiety symptoms and total PAS score. Conclusion. MBCT intervention is acceptable and potentially beneficial in women with PMS symptoms. Psychotherapy should be considered as a treatment option for mild to moderate PMS in women with depressive symptoms.

      PMID: 28025621 [PubMed]

    • Understanding Resident Performance, Mindfulness, and Communication in Critical Care Rotations. -
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      Understanding Resident Performance, Mindfulness, and Communication in Critical Care Rotations.

      J Surg Educ. 2016 Dec 23;:

      Authors: Real K, Fields-Elswick K, Bernard AC

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: Evidence from the medical literature suggests that surgical trainees can benefit from mindful practices. Surgical educators are challenged with the need to address resident core competencies, some of which may be facilitated by higher levels of mindfulness. This study explores whether mindful residents perform better than their peers as members of the health care team.
      DESIGN: This study employed a multiphase, multimethod design to assess resident mindfulness, communication, and clinical performance.
      SETTING: Academic, tertiary medical center.
      PARTICIPANTS: Residents (N = 51) working in an intensive care unit. In phase I, medical residents completed a self-report survey of mindfulness, communication, emotional affect, and clinical decision-making. In phase II, resident performance was assessed using independent ratings of mindfulness and clinical decision-making by attending physicians and registered nurses.
      RESULTS: In phase 1, a significant positive relationship was found between resident performance and mindfulness, positive affect (PA), and communication. In phase 2, attending physicians/registered nurses' perceptions of residents' mindfulness were positively correlated with communication and inversely related to negative affect (NA). The top quartile of residents for performance and mindfulness had the lowest NA. Higher-rated residents underestimated their performance/mindfulness, whereas those in the lowest quartile overestimated these factors.
      CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a number of implications for medical resident education. First, mindfulness was perceived to be a significant contributor to self-assessments of competency and performance. Second, both PA and NA were important to mindfulness and performance. Third, communication was associated with resident performance, mindfulness, and PA. These implications suggest that individual characteristics of mindfulness, communication, and affect, all potentially modifiable, influence care quality and safety. To improve low performers, surgical educators could screen and identify residents with inaccurate self-assessments. Residents open to feedback will improve faster and develop awareness toward situations and interactions with patients, colleagues, attending physicians, and staff.

      PMID: 28025061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Mindfulness as a Coping Strategy for Bias-Based School Victimization among Latina/o Sexual Minority Youth. -
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      Mindfulness as a Coping Strategy for Bias-Based School Victimization among Latina/o Sexual Minority Youth.

      Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers. 2016 Dec;3(4):432-441

      Authors: Toomey RB, Anhalt K

      Abstract
      This study examined whether mindfulness strategies (e.g., acting non-judgmentally with awareness and attention to present events) were effective in mitigating the associations among school-based victimization related to ethnicity and sexual orientation, well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem), and grade-point average (GPA). The U.S.-based sample included 236 Latina/o sexual minority students, ranging in age from 14 to 24 years (47% were enrolled in secondary schools, 53% in postsecondary schools). Results from structural equation modeling revealed that ethnicity-based school victimization was negatively associated with GPA but not well-being. However, sexual orientation-based victimization was not associated with well-being or GPA. Mindfulness was positively associated with well-being but not GPA. High levels of mindfulness coping were protective when the stressor was sexual orientation-based victimization but not ethnicity-based school victimization. These findings contribute to a growing literature documenting the unique school barriers experienced by Latina/o sexual minority youth and highlight the promising utility of mindfulness-based intervention strategies for coping with minority stress.

      PMID: 28018933 [PubMed]

    • Psychological Effects of a 1-Month Meditation Retreat on Experienced Meditators: The Role of Non-attachment. -
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      Psychological Effects of a 1-Month Meditation Retreat on Experienced Meditators: The Role of Non-attachment.

      Front Psychol. 2016;7:1935

      Authors: Montero-Marin J, Puebla-Guedea M, Herrera-Mercadal P, Cebolla A, Soler J, Demarzo M, Vazquez C, Rodríguez-Bornaetxea F, García-Campayo J

      Abstract
      Background: There are few studies devoted to assessing the impact of meditation-intensive retreats on the well-being, positive psychology, and personality of experienced meditators. We aimed to assess whether a 1-month Vipassana retreat: (a) would increase mindfulness and well-being; (b) would increase prosocial personality traits; and (c) whether psychological changes would be mediated and/or moderated by non-attachment. Method: A controlled, non-randomized, pre-post-intervention trial was used. The intervention group was a convenience sample (n = 19) of experienced meditators who participated in a 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat. The control group (n = 19) comprised matched experienced meditators who did not take part in the retreat. During the retreat, the mean duration of daily practice was 8-9 h, the diet was vegetarian and silence was compulsory. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ), Non-attachment Scale (NAS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Temperament Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R-67), Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI) and the MINDSENS Composite Index were administered. ANCOVAs and linear regression models were used to assess pre-post changes and mediation/moderation effects. Results: Compared to controls, retreatants showed increases in non-attachment, observing, MINDSENS, positive-affect, balance-affect, and cooperativeness; and decreases in describing, negative-others, reward-dependence and self-directedness. Non-attachment had a mediating role in decentring, acting aware, non-reactivity, negative-affect, balance-affect and self-directedness; and a moderating role in describing and positive others, with both mediating and moderating effects on satisfaction with life. Conclusions: A 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat seems to yield improvements in mindfulness, well-being, and personality, even in experienced meditators. Non-attachment might facilitate psychological improvements of meditation, making it possible to overcome possible ceiling effects ascribed to non-intensive practices.

      PMID: 28018270 [PubMed]

    • Phone-delivered mindfulness training to promote medication adherence and reduce sexual risk behavior among persons living with HIV: Design and methods. -
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      Phone-delivered mindfulness training to promote medication adherence and reduce sexual risk behavior among persons living with HIV: Design and methods.

      Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Dec 22;:

      Authors: Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Rich C, Rosen RK, Dunsiger S, Rana A, Carey MP

      Abstract
      INTRODUCTION: Two-thirds of people living with HIV (PLWH) show sub-optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and one-third engages in risky sex. Both non-adherence and risky sex have been associated with emotional distress and impulsivity. To allay distress and lessen impulsivity, mindfulness training (MT) can be helpful. In this trial, we will investigate the utility of phone-delivered MT for PWLH. The primary outcomes comprise feasibility and acceptability of phone-delivery; secondary outcomes are estimates of efficacy of MT on adherence to ART and safer sexual practices as well as on their hypothesized antecedents.
      METHODS/DESIGN: Fifty participants will be enrolled in this parallel-group randomized clinical trial (RCT). Outpatients recruited from an HIV treatment clinic will be randomized (1:1 ratio) to either MT or to an attention-control intervention; both interventions will be administered during 8 weekly phone calls. ART adherence (self-reported measure and unannounced phone pill counts), sexual behavior (self-reports and biomarkers), mindfulness, depression, stress, and impulsivity will be measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 3months post-intervention.
      CONCLUSIONS: MT has great potential to help PLWH to manage stress, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity. Positive changes in these antecedents are expected to improve safer sex practices and ART adherence. If results from this exploratory trial support our hypotheses, we will conduct a large RCT to test (a) the efficacy of MT on ART adherence and safer sex practices and (b) the hypothesis that improved ART adherence and safer sex will reduce viral load, and decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted infections, respectively.

      PMID: 28017907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training. -
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      Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training.

      Sustainability. 2016 Oct;8(10):

      Authors: Barrett B, Grabow M, Middlecamp C, Mooney M, Checovich MM, Converse AK, Gillespie B, Yates J

      Abstract
      Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

      PMID: 28008371 [PubMed]

    • Relationship between maternal mindfulness and anxiety 1 month after childbirth. -
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      Relationship between maternal mindfulness and anxiety 1 month after childbirth.

      Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2016 Dec 22;:

      Authors: Yamamoto N, Naruse T, Sakai M, Nagata S

      Abstract
      AIM: To investigate the relationship between maternal mindfulness and maternal anxiety 1 month after childbirth.
      METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used, featuring anonymous questionnaires that were completed between July and December 2014 at two Japanese hospitals. The participants (n = 151) completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Japanese version) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form X (Japanese version). The data analysis was carried out by using a hierarchical multiple regression.
      RESULTS: The state and trait anxiety scores showed significant relationships with mindfulness, the mother's age, and the perceived difference between the expectations of motherhood before childbirth and the reality of post-partum daily life. Furthermore, the amount of average sleep time in the past week (including naps) showed a negative association with the state anxiety score, whereas the marital relationship showed a positive association with trait anxiety. Finally, at 1 month post-partum, the mothers with greater mindfulness scores showed lower anxiety.
      CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in mindfulness could help mothers to reduce their post-partum anxiety.

      PMID: 28004492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults After Cancer Treatment: Effects on Quality of Life, Emotional Distress, and Cognitive Vulnerability. -
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      A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults After Cancer Treatment: Effects on Quality of Life, Emotional Distress, and Cognitive Vulnerability.

      J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2016 Dec 21;:

      Authors: Van der Gucht K, Takano K, Labarque V, Vandenabeele K, Nolf N, Kuylen S, Cosyns V, Van Broeck N, Kuppens P, Raes F

      Abstract
      PURPOSE: Adolescent and young adult cancer (AYAC) survivors show an elevated risk of distress. Targeted psychosocial interventions for this distinct population are needed. This study examined the potential efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to alleviate emotional distress and improve quality of life (QoL) in AYAC survivors.
      METHODS: Participants were 16 AYAC survivors, aged 14-24, who had completed acute medical treatment. A two-baseline (8 and 1 week before the intervention), post- (1 week after the intervention) and 3 months follow-up within-subjects design was used. Each participant completed two baseline assessments, followed by an 8-week MBI. The primary outcome variables were emotional distress and QoL. Secondary outcomes were cognitive vulnerability factors and mindfulness skills.
      RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed (1) a significant reduction in emotional distress and improvement in QoL at 3 months of follow-up, (2) a significant reduction in negative attitudes toward self (i.e., a cognitive vulnerability factor), and (3) a significant improvement in mindfulness skills.
      CONCLUSION: MBI is a promising approach that is used to treat emotional distress and to improve QoL in AYAC survivors. Further research using randomized controlled trials is needed to generalize these findings. Trial registration information: www.trialregister.nl ; NTR4358.

      PMID: 28002681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Effectiveness of traditional meditation retreats: A systematic review and meta-analysis. -
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      Effectiveness of traditional meditation retreats: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      J Psychosom Res. 2017 Jan;92:16-25

      Authors: Khoury B, Knäuper B, Schlosser M, Carrière K, Chiesa A

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies are investigating traditional meditation retreats. Very little, however, is known about their effectiveness.
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of meditation retreats on improving psychological outcomes in general population.
      DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of studies published in journals or as dissertations in PSYCINFO, PUBMED, CINAHL or Web of Science from the first available date until October 22, 2016.
      REVIEW METHODS: A total of 20 papers (21 studies, N=2912) were included.
      RESULTS: Effect-size estimates of outcomes combined suggested that traditional meditation retreats are moderately effective in pre-post analyses (n=19; Hedge's g=0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.54], p<0.00001) and in analyses comparing retreats to controls (n=14; Hedge's g=0.49; 95% CI [0.36, 0.61], p<0.00001). Results were maintained at follow-up. No differences were observed between meditation styles. Results suggested large effects on measures of anxiety, depression and stress, and moderate effects on measures of emotional regulation and quality of life. As to potential mechanisms of actions, results showed large effects on measures of mindfulness and compassion, and moderate effects on measures of acceptance. In addition, changes in mindfulness levels strongly moderated clinical effect sizes. However, heterogeneity was significant among trials, probably due to differences in study designs, types and duration of the retreats and assessed outcomes, limiting therefore the implications of the results.
      CONCLUSION: Meditation retreats are moderately to largely effective in reducing depression, anxiety, stress and in ameliorating the quality of life of participants.

      PMID: 27998508 [PubMed - in process]

    • A randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based intervention program for people with schizophrenia: 6-month follow-up. -
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      A randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based intervention program for people with schizophrenia: 6-month follow-up.

      Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:3097-3110

      Authors: Wang LQ, Chien WT, Yip LK, Karatzias T

      Abstract
      Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly evidenced to be effective in different mental illnesses but limited in schizophrenia. This single-blind, multisite randomized controlled trial tested the effects of a mindfulness-based psychoeducation group program (MPGP in addition to usual care) versus a conventional psychoeducation group program (CPGP) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) alone, in schizophrenia spectrum disorders over a 6-month follow-up. In each of the two study sites (outpatient clinics), 69 outpatients with schizophrenia or its subtypes (N=138) were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups (n=46) after baseline measurements and underwent 6 months of intervention. Primary outcomes including patients' mental state and rehospitalization rate and other secondary outcomes were assessed at entry and at 1 week and 6 months. One hundred and thirty-one (95%) participants completed the interventions assigned and one to two post-tests. Multivariate analyses of variance (followed by univariate contrast tests) indicated that the MPGP participants reported greater reductions in their psychotic symptoms (P=0.003) and length/duration of rehospitalizations (P=0.005) at 6-month follow-up. Patients in the MPGP group also reported greater improvements in their insight into illness/treatment (P=0.0008) and level of functioning (P=0.002) than the CPGP and TAU alone at the 1-week and 6-month follow-up. Overall, the findings suggest that MPGP can be useful in improving the short- to medium-term clinical outcomes of outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, not only in terms of their mental state and risk of relapse but also their insight into illness/treatment and psychosocial functioning.

      PMID: 27994466 [PubMed]

    • The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review. -
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      The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

      J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 Nov 26;

      Authors: Last N, Tufts E, Auger LE

      Abstract
      The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

      PMID: 27983555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Neurocognitive performance and physical function do not change with physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain: Randomized controlled trial. -
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      Neurocognitive performance and physical function do not change with physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain: Randomized controlled trial.

      Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Dec;95(50):e5554

      Authors: Jay K, Brandt M, Schraefel M, Jakobsen MD, Sundstrup E, Sjøgaard G, Vinstrup J, Andersen LL

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Cognitive and physical performance can be negatively affected by chronic pain. This study evaluates the effect of combined physical-, cognitive-, and mindfulness training (PCMT) on cognitive and physical performance.
      METHODS: From a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark we randomly allocated 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic upper limb pain to group-based PCMT at the worksite or a reference group for 10 weeks. Neurocognitive performance was measured by the computerized central nervous system vital signs neurocognitive assessment battery. Physical function was assessed in terms of shoulder external rotation strength and rate of force development in a custom-made dynamometer setup.
      RESULTS: No between-group differences (least square means [95% confidence interval]) from baseline to follow-up could be detected in any of the neurocognitive domains as measured by the central nervous system vital signs neurocognitive assessment battery, for example, Psychomotoer Speed 1.9 (-1.0 to 4.7), Reaction Time -4.0 (-19.5 to 11.6), Complex Attention -0.3 (-1.9 to 1.4), and Executive Function -0.2 (-3.5 to 3.0). Similarly, we found no change in maximal voluntary isometric strength -0.63 (-4.8 to 3.6), or rate of force development 14.8 (-12.6 to 42.2) of the shoulder external rotators. Finally, test-retest reliability of maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development shoulder external rotation showed high reliability at 0 to 30 ms, 0 to 50 ms, 0 to 100 ms, and 0 to 200 ms with ICCs at 0.95, 0.92, 0.93, 0.92, and 0.91, respectively.
      CONCLUSION: Ten weeks of PCMT did not improve neurocognitive or physical performance.

      PMID: 27977585 [PubMed - in process]



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