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  • MEDITATION IN THE LITERATURE
      PubMed Abstracts - Some citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. [Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). NCBI Copyright and Disclaimers]
    • Mindfulness-based stress reduction in middle-aged and older adults with memory complaints: a mixed-methods study. -

      Mindfulness-based stress reduction in middle-aged and older adults with memory complaints: a mixed-methods study.

      Aging Ment Health. 2017 Jul 19;:1-8

      Authors: Berk L, Hotterbeekx R, van Os J, van Boxtel M

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVES: In a rapidly aging world population, an increasingly large group faces age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Cognitive complaints of older adults are often related to worries and concerns associated with age-related functional decline. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) can successfully target stress, worry and ruminative thinking, but the applicability of this method in middle-aged and older adults with memory complaints is unclear.
      METHOD: Patients of a university hospital memory clinic (n = 13), aged 45-85 years, with memory complaints but no diagnosis of cognitive disorder, participated in a standard 8-week MBSR program, consisting of weekly group meetings and a one-day silent retreat. After completion, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Questionnaires (administered before, one week after and five weeks after the intervention) assessed quality of life, psychological distress (stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms), mindfulness, self-compassion, and subjective memory functioning. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed online, before and after the intervention.
      RESULTS: The qualitative analysis showed positive effects of the training (e.g. increased serenity), many participants worrying less about memory complaints. The self-reported measures were in line with the results of the qualitative analysis.
      CONCLUSION: This exploratory mixed-methods study suggests that MBSR is feasible and well received among older individuals with cognitive complaints.

      PMID: 28721742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Influence of adjuvant detached mindfulness and stress management training compared to pharmacologic treatment in primiparae with postpartum depression. -
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      Influence of adjuvant detached mindfulness and stress management training compared to pharmacologic treatment in primiparae with postpartum depression.

      Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017 Jul 18;:

      Authors: Ahmadpanah M, Nazaribadie M, Aghaei E, Ghaleiha A, Bakhtiari A, Haghighi M, Bahmani DS, Akhondi A, Bajoghli H, Jahangard L, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Brand S

      Abstract
      Ten to 15% of mothers experience postpartum depression (PPD). If untreated, PPD may negatively affect mothers' and infants' mental health in the long term. Accordingly, effective treatments are required. In the present study, we investigated the effect of detached mindfulness (DM) and stress management training (SMT) as adjuvants, compared to pharmacologic treatment only, on symptoms of depression in women with PPD. Forty-five primiparae (mean age: M = 24.5 years) with diagnosed PPD and treated with an SSRI (citalopram; CIT) took part in the study. At baseline, they completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data and symptoms of depression. Experts rated also symptoms of depression. Next, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following study conditions: adjuvant detached mindfulness (CIT+DM); adjuvant stress management training (CIT+SMT); control condition (CIT). Self- and experts' ratings were completed at the end of the study 8 weeks later, and again at 8 weeks follow-up. Symptoms of depression decreased significantly over time, but more so in the CIT+DM and CIT+SMT group, compared to the control condition. The pattern of results remained stable at follow-up. In primiparae with PPD and treated with a standard SSRI, adjuvant psychotherapeutic interventions led to significant and longer-lasting improvements.

      PMID: 28721461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Does Mindfulness Correlate With Physical Function and Pain Intensity in Patients With Upper Extremity Illness? -
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      Does Mindfulness Correlate With Physical Function and Pain Intensity in Patients With Upper Extremity Illness?

      Hand (N Y). 2017 Mar 01;:1558944717697429

      Authors: Beks RB, Mellema JJ, Menendez ME, Chen NC, Ring D, Vranceanu AM

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Mindfulness skills training interventions seem efficacious in increasing physical function and decreasing pain intensity in patients with chronic pain. The relationship of mindfulness and upper extremity complaints in patients presenting to orthopedic surgical practices is not known. The aim of this study was to assess if mindfulness has a relationship to physical function and pain intensity in patients with upper extremity illness.
      METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 126 patients with a nontraumatic upper extremity condition were asked to fill out questionnaires assessing the 5 facets of mindfulness, pain intensity, and upper extremity physical function, along with clinical and demographic variables prior to their visit with the surgeon.
      RESULTS: Nonreactivity to inner experiences was the only facet of mindfulness that was correlated with upper extremity physical function and pain intensity. The overall mindfulness score was correlated with pain intensity only. In multivariable analyses, mindfulness was not associated with either physical function or with pain intensity. Pain interference was the most important predictor of both pain intensity and physical function.
      CONCLUSIONS: Greater overall mindfulness was associated with lower pain intensity, and greater ability to be nonreactive to inner experiences was associated with both pain intensity and upper extremity physical function in bivariate but not multivariable analyses. Pain interference was the most important predictor of both pain intensity and upper extremity physical function. Psychosocial interventions focused on improving physical function and decreasing pain intensity in this population should focus primarily on reducing pain interference, and secondarily on teaching patients mindfulness skills.

      PMID: 28719992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms. -
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      A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms.

      Nutr Res Rev. 2017 Jul 18;:1-12

      Authors: Warren JM, Smith N, Ashwell M

      Abstract
      The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations. Mindfulness-based approaches appear most effective in addressing binge eating, emotional eating and eating in response to external cues. There is a lack of compelling evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness and mindful eating in weight management. Mindfulness-based approaches may prevent weight gain. Reduced food intake was seen in some of the studies in overweight and obese populations, but this was less apparent in the studies in normal-weight populations. The evidence base for intuitive eating is limited to date and further research is needed to examine its potential in altering eating behaviours. Mindfulness appears to work by an increased awareness of internal, rather than external, cues to eat. Mindfulness and mindful eating have the potential to address problematic eating behaviours and the challenges many face with controlling their food intake. Encouraging a mindful eating approach would seem to be a positive message to be included in general weight management advice to the public.

      PMID: 28718396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma. -
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      The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma.

      J Psychosom Res. 2017 Aug;99:143-148

      Authors: Cillessen L, van de Ven MO, Karremans JC

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated.
      METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaire data of 94 adolescents with asthma that were prescribed daily asthma medication were included. Two Structural Equation Models (SEMs), a direct model and an indirect model, were tested.
      RESULTS: We found that trait mindfulness was directly related to asthma-related QoL, but not to asthma control. The relationship between trait mindfulness and asthma-related QoL was explained by asthma-specific, but not by general stress. Furthermore, an indirect relation from mindfulness to asthma control via asthma-specific stress was found.
      CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional evidence for a relation between mindfulness and asthma-related QoL is found. These findings may point to the possibility that an intervention aimed at increasing mindfulness could be a promising tool to improve asthma-related QoL in adolescents via a decrease in asthma-specific stress.

      PMID: 28712420 [PubMed - in process]

    • Holding the body in mind: Interoceptive awareness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. -
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      Holding the body in mind: Interoceptive awareness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being.

      J Psychosom Res. 2017 Aug;99:13-20

      Authors: Hanley AW, Mehling WE, Garland EL

      Abstract
      Objective Recent dialogue between Western and Eastern traditions has stimulated novel explorations of the relationship between mind and body. Many of these cross-cultural, mind-body dialogues have proven productive in identifying more adaptive forms of embodiment. Prior studies suggest that dispositional mindfulness (DM) and interoceptive awareness (IA) are associated but distinct, key constructs in mind-body approaches that are conceptualized in a variety of ways with imprecisely characterized relationship. The current study is a secondary data analysis that explores the relationship between scores on measures of IA and DM, examining multivariate networks of association between these constructs and addressing their relationship with scores on a measure of psychological well-being.
      METHOD: Participants (n=478) were American adults completing measures of interoceptive awareness (as measured by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness; MAIA), dispositional mindfulness (as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; FFMQ), and psychological well-being (as measure by the Scales of Psychological Well-Being; SPWB) online. The average participant age was 36.44 (S.D.=12.17), and 57% were female.
      RESULTS: Correlational results from his study indicated that the IA scales and DM facets form two associative clusters. Canonical correlation analysis supported this finding, revealing that two primary networks of association exist between IA and DM, a Regulatory Awareness cluster and an Acceptance in Action cluster. Finally, hierarchical linear regression demonstrated that the self-report measures of IA and DM shared considerable variance, but also explained unique portions of the variance in psychological well-being.
      CONCLUSION: This psychometric investigation demonstrates that IA and DM are tightly interwoven, partly overlapping constructs. Indeed, greater DM is strongly linked with greater IA. Additionally, both IA and DM appear to be independently associated with enhanced psychological well-being. Future research should investigate how mindfulness practices moderate IA for therapeutic implications.

      PMID: 28712417 [PubMed - in process]

    • Mechanisms of Change During Attention Training and Mindfulness in High Trait-Anxious Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Study. -
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      Mechanisms of Change During Attention Training and Mindfulness in High Trait-Anxious Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Study.

      Behav Ther. 2017 Sep;48(5):678-694

      Authors: McEvoy PM, Graville R, Hayes S, Kane RT, Foster JK

      Abstract
      The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique; ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures. High trait anxious participants (N = 81, Mage = 23.60, SDage = 7.66, 80% female) were randomized to receive ATT, MB-PMR, or the TWC condition. Measures of cognitive and somatic anxiety, distancing, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility were administered before or after the attention manipulation task. Compared to the TWC group, ATT and MB-PMR were associated with greater changes on cognitive (but not somatic) anxiety, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and uncorrected errors for threat-related words on the Stroop task. The pattern of means was similar for distancing, but this did not reach statistical significance, and Stroop speed increased equally for all conditions. Indirect effects models revealed significant effects of condition on state anxiety via distancing, metacognitive beliefs, and present-focused attention, but not via Stroop errors. ATT and MB-PMR were associated with changes on anxiety and the mechanism measures, suggesting that the mechanisms of change may be more similar than different across these techniques.

      PMID: 28711117 [PubMed - in process]

    • Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high borderline personality traits. -
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      Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high borderline personality traits.

      Behav Res Ther. 2017 Jul 08;97:43-51

      Authors: Keng SL, Tan JX

      Abstract
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Eighty-eight participants underwent a shame induction procedure involving recall of a negative autobiographical memory. They were then randomly assigned to 10 min of mindful breathing or LKM, or a no-instruction condition. Shame and SPS abilities were assessed via visual analogue scales and the Means-Ends Problem Solving task respectively. Results indicated that there were significant decreases in shame from pre-to post-regulation in the mindfulness group versus the LKM and no-instruction groups. Groups did not differ on changes in SPS abilities from pre-to post-regulation. Overall, the findings support the efficacy of mindfulness as a strategy to regulate shame among individuals with BPD traits, and raises questions with regard to the utility of LKM in modulating shame in the context of high emotional arousal.

      PMID: 28710927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Induction on Death-Related Anxiety. -
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      Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Induction on Death-Related Anxiety.

      Omega (Westport). 2017 Jan 01;:30222817721115

      Authors: Schultz DM, Arnau RC

      Abstract
      This study examined effects of a mindfulness induction on proximal and distal defense responses to mortality salience and negative affect. Three experimental conditions were included: mindfulness, mind-wandering, and worrying. Participants in the mindfulness condition underwent a mindfulness induction at the experiment's outset, while participants in the other two conditions underwent a mind-wandering or worry induction. Inductions involved following guided audio instructions presented via headphones. All conditions ( N = 77) underwent a mortality salience induction after experimental manipulation, involving a written exercise pertaining to one's death. Results indicated fewer proximal responses in the mindfulness and mind-wandering groups, compared with the worrying group, but no differences in distal responses. Negative affect was lower in the mindfulness group than in the worrying group following mortality salience. Results suggest that mindfulness exercises effectively buffer against negative affect and some responses to mortality salience, although these effects are not different from those of mind-wandering.

      PMID: 28707965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness as predictors of analogue post-traumatic stress. -
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      Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness as predictors of analogue post-traumatic stress.

      Psychol Psychother. 2017 Jul 14;:

      Authors: Boelen PA, Lenferink LIM

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVES: Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. This study was a preliminary attempt to examine (1) associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative, but not necessarily traumatizing, life events ('analogue' PTS), (2) the role of these variables in the context of neuroticism as well as worry and rumination - two other regulatory strategies associated with PTS, and (3) the impact of pre-trauma tendencies towards experiential acceptance and mindfulness on analogue PTS.
      DESIGN: Data were obtained from two distinct student samples. A first sample provided cross-sectional data. In a second sample, indices of acceptance, mindfulness, neuroticism, worry, and rumination were tapped at inclusion into the study, and analogue PTS and confrontation with stressful life events were subsequently assessed 1 year later.
      RESULTS: In the cross-sectional sample, higher acceptance and mindfulness were associated with lower analogue PTS, even when controlling for neuroticism, worry, and rumination. In the prospective sample, pre-trauma mindfulness (but not experiential acceptance, neuroticism, worry, and rumination) assessed at baseline predicted levels of analogue PTS 1 year later.
      CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are incrementally related to PTS beyond neuroticism, worry, and rumination and that pre-trauma trait-mindfulness may be a resilience factor protecting against severe PTS.
      PRACTITIONER POINTS: We examined associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative life events ('analogue' PTS). Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness were associated with concurrent analogue PTS, over and above neuroticism, worry, and rumination. Pre-trauma trait-mindfulness (but not pre-trauma experiential acceptance) significantly predicted analogue PTS in prospective analyses. Enhancing mindfulness skills could be a useful tool to reduce the risk of PTS in trauma-exposed samples.

      PMID: 28707425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting. -
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      Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting.

      J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Jul 12;:

      Authors: Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, Riquino MR, Priddy SE, Thomas E, Hanley AW, Galbraith P, Wanner N, Nakamura Y

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions.
      OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to a psychoeducation pain coping control. We also hypothesized that mindfulness and suggestion would produce significant improvements in secondary outcomes including relaxation, pleasant body sensations, anxiety, and desire for opioids, compared to the control condition.
      METHODS: This three-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial conducted at a university-based hospital examined the acute effects of 15-min psychosocial interventions (mindfulness, hypnotic suggestion, psychoeducation) on adult inpatients reporting "intolerable pain" or "inadequate pain control." Participants (N = 244) were assigned to one of three intervention conditions: mindfulness (n = 86), suggestion (n = 73), or psychoeducation (n = 85).
      KEY RESULTS: Participants in the mind-body interventions reported significantly lower baseline-adjusted pain intensity post-intervention than those assigned to psychoeducation (p < 0.001, percentage pain reduction: mindfulness = 23%, suggestion = 29%, education = 9%), and lower baseline-adjusted pain unpleasantness (p < 0.001). Intervention conditions differed significantly with regard to relaxation (p < 0.001), pleasurable body sensations (p = 0.001), and desire for opioids (p = 0.015), but all three interventions were associated with a significant reduction in anxiety (p < 0.001).
      CONCLUSIONS: Brief, single-session mind-body interventions delivered by hospital social workers led to clinically significant improvements in pain and related outcomes, suggesting that such interventions may be useful adjuncts to medical pain management.
      TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov ; registration ID number: NCT02590029 URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02590029.

      PMID: 28702870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Group Support Decrease Stress in Adolescents with Cardiac Diagnoses: A Randomized Two-Group Study. -
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      Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Group Support Decrease Stress in Adolescents with Cardiac Diagnoses: A Randomized Two-Group Study.

      Pediatr Cardiol. 2017 Jul 12;:

      Authors: Freedenberg VA, Hinds PS, Friedmann E

      Abstract
      Adolescents with cardiac diagnoses face unique challenges that can cause psychosocial distress. This study compares a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to a video online support group for adolescents with cardiac diagnoses. MBSR is a structured psycho-educational program which includes yoga, meditation, cognitive restructuring, and group support. A published feasibility study by our group showed significant reduction in anxiety following this intervention. Participants were randomized to MBSR or video online support group, and completed measures of anxiety, depression, illness-related stress, and coping pre- and post-6-session interventions. Qualitative data were obtained from post-intervention interviews. A total of 46 teens participated (mean 14.8 years; 63% female). Participants had congenital heart disease and/or cardiac device (52%), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (48%). Illness-related stress significantly decreased in both groups. Greater use of coping skills predicted lower levels of depression in both groups post-study completion. Higher baseline anxiety/depression scores predicted improved anxiety/depression scores in both groups. Each group reported the benefits of social support. The MBSR group further expressed benefits of learning specific techniques, strategies, and skills that they applied in real-life situations to relieve distress. Both the MBSR intervention and video support group were effective in reducing distress in this sample. Qualitative data elucidated the added benefits of using MBSR techniques to manage stress and symptoms. The video group format is useful for teens that cannot meet in person but can benefit from group support. Psychosocial interventions with stress management techniques and/or group support can reduce distress in adolescents with cardiac diagnoses.

      PMID: 28702717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling. -
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      Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling.

      Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 11;7(1):5058

      Authors: Kyeong S, Kim J, Kim DJ, Kim HE, Kim JJ

      Abstract
      A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. The average HR was significantly lower during the gratitude intervention than during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal FC showed a positive correlation with HR during the gratitude intervention, but not during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal resting-state FC was significantly decreased after the gratitude intervention compared to the resentment intervention. After the gratitude intervention, resting-state FC of the amygdala with the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with anxiety scale and depression scale, respectively. Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions.

      PMID: 28698643 [PubMed - in process]

    • MiYoga: a randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness movement programme based on hatha yoga principles for children with cerebral palsy: a study protocol. -
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      MiYoga: a randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness movement programme based on hatha yoga principles for children with cerebral palsy: a study protocol.

      BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 10;7(7):e015191

      Authors: Mak C, Whittingham K, Cunnington R, Boyd RN

      Abstract
      INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood physical disability, with life-long impacts for 1.77 in 1000 children. Although CP is primarily a physical disability, children with CP have an increased risk of experiencing cognitive difficulties, particularly attention and executive function deficits. Impairment in cognitive abilities can lead to subsequent impairment in independent functioning, education, employment and interpersonal relationships. This paper reports the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of a novel family-centred lifestyle intervention based on mindfulness and hatha yoga principles (MiYoga). MiYoga aims to enhance child and parent outcomes for children with CP.
      METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim is to recruit 36 child-parent dyads (children aged 6-16 years; bilateral or unilateral CP; Gross Motor Function Classification System I-III), who will be randomly assigned to two groups: MiYoga andwaitlistt control. The MiYoga programme will be facilitated in a group format for 8 weeks. Assessments will be administered at baseline, prior to MiYoga, following completion of MiYoga, and at 6-month follow-up (retention). The primary outcome will be the child's sustained attentional ability as measured by the Conner's Continuous Performance Test II. Other outcomes of interest for children with CP consists of attentional control, physical functioning, behavioural and well-being. For parents, the outcomes of interest are mindfulness, psychological flexibility and well-being. Data will be analysed using general linear models, specifically analysis of covariance and analysis of variance.
      ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Full ethical approval for this study has been obtained by the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service Research Ethics Committee (HREC/12/QRCH/120) and The University of Queensland (2012000993). If MiYoga is proven effective, its dissemination would assist children with CP and complement their ongoing therapy by improving the ability of the child to pay attention at school and in therapy, and alleviating environmentalstressorss for both the child and his/her parents.
      TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12613000729729; Pre-results.http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12613000729729.aspx DATE OF TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered on 2 July 2013-present (ongoing).
      FINDINGS TO DATE: Recruitment is complete. Data are still being collected at present. We aim to complete data collection by February 2017.

      PMID: 28698326 [PubMed - in process]

    • Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat. -
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      Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat.

      Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:315

      Authors: Cahn BR, Goodman MS, Peterson CT, Maturi R, Mills PJ

      Abstract
      Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were also observed. The normalized change in BDNF levels was inversely correlated with BSI-18 anxiety scores at both the pre-retreat (r = 0.40, p < 0.05) and post-retreat (r = 0.52, p < 0.005) such that those with greater anxiety scores tended to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were increased after the retreat. Given evidence from previous studies of the positive effects of meditative practices on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, we hypothesize that these findings are related to the meditative practices throughout the retreat; however, some of the observed changes may also be related to other aspects of the retreat such as physical exercise-related components of the yoga practice and diet. We hypothesize that the patterns of change observed here reflect mind-body integration and well-being. The increased BDNF levels observed is a potential mediator between meditative practices and brain health, the increased CAR is likely a reflection of increased dynamic physiological arousal, and the relationship of the dual enhancement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes to healthy immunologic functioning is discussed.

      PMID: 28694775 [PubMed - in process]

    • Changes in psychosocial well-being after mindfulness-based stress reduction: a prospective cohort study. -
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      Changes in psychosocial well-being after mindfulness-based stress reduction: a prospective cohort study.

      J Man Manip Ther. 2017 Jul;25(3):128-136

      Authors: Hill RJ, McKernan LC, Wang L, Coronado RA

      Abstract
      Objectives: The primary purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program, facilitated by non-psychologist clinicians, for improving psychosocial well-being. A secondary purpose of the current study was to explore the role of self-compassion as a potential underlying factor for improvements in emotional distress. Application of these findings to a physical therapy setting is provided. Methods: One hundred and thirty participants with a variety of medical complaints completed an eight-week MBSR program at Vanderbilt University's Osher Center for Integrative Medicine. Prior to the intervention and at the eight-week time point, participants completed measures for emotional distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10), mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale), and self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate changes in outcomes after MBSR. Linear model estimation using ordinary least squares was used to evaluate the association between changes in self-compassion with changes in emotional distress. Results: Following MBSR, participants reported significant reductions in emotional distress (p < 0.001). Additionally, participants reported improvements in mindfulness and self-compassion (p < 0.001). Linear regression model revealed that changes in self-compassion were significantly associated with changes in emotional distress (p < 0.001). Discussion: An MBSR program conducted by non-psychologist clinicians was associated with improvements in emotional distress, stress, and self-compassion. MBSR is a promising adjunct intervention in which principles can be integrated within a physical therapy approach for chronic conditions. Level of Evidence: 3B.

      PMID: 28694675 [PubMed - in process]

    • Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Health Care Worker Safety: A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial. -
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      Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Health Care Worker Safety: A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial.

      J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Jul 06;:

      Authors: Valley MA, Stallones L

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the impact of mindfulness training on occupational safety of hospital health care workers.
      METHODS: The study used a randomized waitlist-controlled trial design to test the effect of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course on self-reported health care worker safety outcomes, measured at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months later.
      RESULTS: Twenty-three hospital health care workers participated in the study (11 in immediate intervention group; 12 in waitlist control group). The MBSR training decreased workplace cognitive failures (F [1, 20] = 7.44, P = 0.013, ηP = 0.27) and increased safety compliance behaviors (F [1, 20] = 7.79, P = 0.011, ηP = 0.28) among hospital health care workers. Effects were stable 6 months following the training. The MBSR intervention did not significantly affect participants' promotion of safety in the workplace (F [1, 20] = 0.40, P = 0.54, ηP = 0.02).
      CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness training may potentially decrease occupational injuries of health care workers.

      PMID: 28692014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Combining emotion regulation and mindfulness skills for preventing depression relapse: a randomized-controlled study. -
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      Combining emotion regulation and mindfulness skills for preventing depression relapse: a randomized-controlled study.

      Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul. 2017;4:13

      Authors: Elices M, Soler J, Feliu-Soler A, Carmona C, Tiana T, Pascual JC, García-Palacios A, Álvarez E

      Abstract
      BACKGROUND: Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) skills have become increasingly used to treat several psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of an intervention that combines emotion regulation and mindfulness skills of DBT to prevent depression relapse/recurrence.
      METHODS: A total of 75 individuals (79% females; mean age, 52 years) with a diagnosis of MDD in complete or partial remission were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated either to an intervention combining emotion regulation and mindfulness skills (ER + M group, n = 37) or to a psychoeducative program (n = 38). After the 10-week treatment period, participants were followed for 1 year. Analyses were run in per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) samples. The primary outcome measure was time to depression relapse/recurrence.
      RESULTS: ER + M training was not more effective than the control intervention in preventing depression relapse. However, PP and ITT analyses showed that participants trained in ER + M presented a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and overall psychopathology. Based on the PP and ITT analyses, neither of the interventions were related with an increase in dispositional mindfulness.
      CONCLUSIONS: More studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of ER + M to decrease depressive symptoms and overall psychopathology.
      TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02747134. Registered on 20 April 2016.

      PMID: 28690851 [PubMed]

    • Meditation and the brain -Neuronal correlates of mindfulness as assessed with near infrared spectroscopy. -
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      Meditation and the brain -Neuronal correlates of mindfulness as assessed with near infrared spectroscopy.

      Psychiatry Res. 2017 Apr 08;:

      Authors: Gundel F, von Spee J, Schneider S, Haeussinger FB, Hautzinger M, Erb M, Fallgatter AJ, Ehlis AC

      Abstract
      Mindfulness meditation as a therapeutic intervention has been shown to have positive effects on psychological problems such as depression, pain or anxiety disorders. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect differences in hemodynamic responses of meditation experts (14 participants) and a control group (16 participants) in a resting and a mindfulness condition. In both conditions, the sound of a meditation bowl was used to find group differences in the auditory system and adjacent cortical areas. Different lateralization patterns of the brain were found in expert meditators while being in a resting state (amplified left hemisphere) or being in mindfulness state (amplified right hemisphere). Compared to the control group, meditation experts had a more widespread pattern of activation in the auditory cortex, while resting. In the mindfulness condition, the control group showed a decrease of activation in higher auditory areas (BA 1, 6 and 40), whereas the meditation experts had a significant increase in those areas. In addition, meditation expert had highly activated brain areas (BA 39, 40, 44 and 45) beyond the meditative task itself, indicating possible long-term changes in the brain and their positive effects on empathy, meta cognitive skills and health.

      PMID: 28689600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • A Mindfulness Program Manual for People With Dementia. -
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      A Mindfulness Program Manual for People With Dementia.

      Behav Modif. 2017 Jul 01;:145445517715872

      Authors: Chan J, Churcher Clarke A, Royan L, Stott J, Spector A

      Abstract
      This article describes a 10-session group-based Mindfulness Program for people with mild to moderate dementia. It aims to equip people with dementia with skills to manage psychological distress, with support from carers. The Mindfulness Program was developed through reviews of existing literature, consultation with experts, and a focus group with people with dementia. In a randomized controlled feasibility and pilot trial with people with mild to moderate dementia in care homes, it was found to significantly increase quality of life. The manual presented here is designed to be administered flexibly to promote participants' personhood. The protocol is designed for use by therapists with experience in practicing mindfulness meditation.

      PMID: 28689469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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