Latest Mind-Body Medicine Research

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      PubMed Abstracts - Some citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. [Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). NCBI Copyright and Disclaimers]
    • The embodied mind: A review on functional genomic and neurological correlates of mind-body therapies. -
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      The embodied mind: A review on functional genomic and neurological correlates of mind-body therapies.

      Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec 23;73:165-181

      Authors: Muehsam D, Lutgendorf S, Mills PJ, Rickhi B, Chevalier G, Bat N, Chopra D, Gurfein B

      A broad range of mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used by the public today, and a growing body of clinical and basic sciences research has resulted in evidence-based integration of many MBTs into clinical practice. Basic sciences research has identified some of the physiological correlates of MBT practices, leading to a better understanding of the processes by which emotional, cognitive and psychosocial factors can influence health outcomes and well-being. In particular, results from functional genomics and neuroimaging describe some of the processes involved in the mind-body connection and how these can influence health outcomes. Functional genomic and neurophysiological correlates of MBTs are reviewed, detailing studies showing changes in sympathetic nervous system activation of gene transcription factors involved in immune function and inflammation, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies on MBT practices, and persistent changes in neural function and morphology associated with these practices. While the broad diversity of study designs and MBTs studied presents a patchwork of results requiring further validation through replication and longitudinal studies, clear themes emerge for MBTs as immunomodulatory, with effects on leukocyte transcription and function related to inflammatory and innate immune responses, and neuromodulatory, with effects on brain function and morphology relevant for attention, learning, and emotion regulation. By detailing the potential mechanisms of action by which MBTs may influence health outcomes, the data generated by these studies have contributed significantly towards a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying MBTs.

      PMID: 28017838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Effects of mind-body exercises on the physiological and psychosocial well-being of individuals with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. -
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      Effects of mind-body exercises on the physiological and psychosocial well-being of individuals with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Complement Ther Med. 2016 Dec;29:121-131

      Authors: Kwok JY, Choi KC, Chan HY

      OBJECTIVES: The effects of mind-body exercises on individuals with chronic illnesses have attracted increasing attention. However, little effort had been made to systematically review the effects of these mind-body exercises on individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). This review aimed to appraise the current evidence of the effects of mind-body exercises on the physiological and psychological outcomes for the PD population.
      DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
      DATA SOURCES: Four English databases, namely, the EMBASE, Ovid Medline, Psych Info, and Cochrane Library, were searched on January 2016.
      REVIEW METHODS: Studies involving participants with idiopathic PD were included if mind-body exercises were applied and compared with a non-exercise control to improve physiological and psychosocial well-being. The Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool was used for quality appraisal. RevMan 5.3 was employed to perform this meta-analysis. A subgroup analysis regarding the types and the dose of intervention was conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity.
      RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria for quality appraisal. The overall methodological rating of these studies indicated that one study was strong; five studies were moderate; and four studies were weak. Nine articles comprising five Tai Chi, two yoga, and two dance studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of this review showed that mind-body exercises had a large, significant beneficial effect in motor symptoms in terms of UPDRS III for people with mild to moderate PD [SMD=-0.91, 95% CI (-1.37, -0.45), p<0.05]. Significant subgroup differences were found among various types of mind-body exercises (p=0.001). Yoga demonstrated the largest and most significant beneficial effect in reducing UPDRS III scores [SMD=-2.35, 95% CI (-3.21, -1.50), p<0.01]. The pooled meta-analysis results showed that mind-body exercises had a large, significant effect in improving postural instability in terms of the Berg Balance Scale [SMD=1.48, 95% CI (0.91, 2.06), p<0.01] and Timed Up and Go test [SMD=-0.97, 95% CI (-1.46, -0.47), p<0.01] and moderate, significant effect in improving functional mobility in terms of the Six-minute Walk test [SMD=0.78, 95% CI (0.35, 1.21), p<0.05].
      CONCLUSIONS: This review found that mind-body exercises demonstrated immediate moderate to large beneficial effects on motor symptoms, postural instability, and functional mobility among individuals with mild to moderate PD. However, the effects of mind-body exercises on psychosocial well-being had not been amply investigated, especially for yoga intervention. Future research should address the psychosocial effects of mind-body exercises on the PD population.

      PMID: 27912936 [PubMed - in process]

    • Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind-body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. -
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      Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind-body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms.

      BMJ Open. 2016 Nov 29;6(11):e012464

      Authors: Niles BL, Mori DL, Polizzi CP, Pless Kaiser A, Ledoux AM, Wang C

      OBJECTIVE: To examine feasibility, qualitative feedback and satisfaction associated with a 4-session introduction to Tai Chi for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms.
      DESIGN: We observed and reported recruitment and retention rates, participant characteristics, adherence, and satisfaction across 2 cohorts. We also examined qualitative feedback provided by questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews.
      MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of recruitment and retention, focus group and individual feedback interviews, self-reported satisfaction.
      PARTICIPANTS: 17 veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms.
      RESULTS: Almost 90% (17/19) of those eligible following the telephone screen enrolled in the programme. Three-quarters (76.4%) of the participants attended at least 3 of the 4 Tai Chi sessions. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes indicating favourable impressions of the Tai Chi sessions. In addition, participants reported feeling very engaged during the sessions, and found Tai Chi to be helpful for managing distressing symptoms (ie, intrusive thoughts, concentration difficulties, physiological arousal). Participants also reported high satisfaction: 93.8% endorsed being very or mostly satisfied with the programme. All participants (100%) indicated that they would like to participate in future Tai Chi programmes and would recommend it to a friend.
      CONCLUSIONS: Tai Chi appears to be feasible and safe for veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is perceived to be beneficial and is associated with high rates of satisfaction. This study highlights the need for future investigation of Tai Chi as a novel intervention to address symptoms of PTSD.

      PMID: 27899398 [PubMed - in process]

    • Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives. -
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      Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives.

      Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Dec;28(4):357-362

      Authors: Talić G, Ostojić L, Bursać SN, Nožica-Radulović T, Stevanović-Papić Đ

      Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.

      PMID: 27855426 [PubMed - in process]

    • Mind-body interventions for vasomotor symptoms in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. A systematic review. -
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      Mind-body interventions for vasomotor symptoms in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. A systematic review.

      J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Nov 11;:1-16

      Authors: Stefanopoulou E, Grunfeld EA

      Mind-body therapies are commonly recommended to treat vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence to date for the efficacy of different mind-body therapies to alleviate HFNS in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using seven electronic search engines, direct searches of specific journals and backwards searches through reference lists of related publications. Outcome measures included HFNS frequency and/or severity or self-reported problem rating at post-treatment. The methodological quality of all studies was systematically assessed using predefined criteria. Twenty-six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included yoga (n = 5), hypnosis (n = 3), mindfulness (n = 2), relaxation (n = 7), paced breathing (n = 4), reflexology (n = 1) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4). Findings were consistent for the effectiveness of CBT and relaxation therapies for alleviating troublesome vasomotor symptoms. For the remaining interventions, although some trials indicated beneficial effects (within groups) at post-treatment and/or follow up, between group findings were mixed and overall, methodological differences across studies failed to provide convincing supporting evidence. Collectively, findings suggest that interventions that include breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as CBT, can be beneficial for alleviating vasomotor symptoms. Additional large, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to establish the efficacy of interventions on vasomotor symptoms, examine long-term outcomes and understand how they work.

      PMID: 27832718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • The origins of Western mind-body exercise methods. -
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      The origins of Western mind-body exercise methods.

      Phys Ther Rev. 2015 Nov 02;20(5-6):315-324

      Authors: Hoffman J, Gabel CP

      Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind-body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind-body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society's elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind-body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance.

      PMID: 27695277 [PubMed - in process]

    • Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic. -
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      Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

      J Health Psychol. 2016 Sep 29;:

      Authors: Luberto CM, Chad-Friedman E, Dossett ML, Perez GK, Park ER

      Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients (N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support (ps < .05).Current smokers who use mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

      PMID: 27688301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action. -
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      Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action.

      Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:2156969

      Authors: Kinser PA, Robins JL, Masho SW

      Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

      PMID: 27672398 [PubMed]

    • Mind-Body Interventions for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients in the Chinese Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. -
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      Mind-Body Interventions for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients in the Chinese Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

      Int J Behav Med. 2016 Sep 19;

      Authors: Wang W, Wang F, Fan F, Sedas AC, Wang J

      PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to identify and assess evidence related to the efficacy of mind-body interventions on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the Chinese population.
      METHOD: Drawn from Chinese databases, nine RCTs and three Q-E studies were included in the systematic review. The methodological quality of RCTs was evaluated based on the following criteria: adequate sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting, and other potential biases. For continuous variables, the effect size (ES) was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference between groups. For dichotomous variables, the ES was determined by calculating the risk ratio (RR) between groups. Given the heterogeneity between the trials and the small number of studies included, both random effects and fixed effects models were used. The inverse variance method was used for pooling. Statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager version 5.0.
      RESULTS: The total number of papers identified was 710: 462 from English language databases and 248 from Chinese language databases. Twelve studies met our eligibility criteria. Among the studies selected, three were Q-E studies the rest RCTs. Two studies described the randomization process. None of the studies reported allocation concealment nor blinding. Seven studies reported no dropouts. One of the studies mentioned the total amount of dropouts; though the reason for dropping out was not referenced. The other four studies did not clearly report dropouts. With the exception of three studies, there was inadequate information to determine biased reporting for the majority; the level of risk for bias in these studies is unclear. Finally, six meta-analyses were performed. One was conducted with four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that used cure rate as outcome measures to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, which suggested that mind-body interventions were effective in improving GI symptoms (random effects model: RR = 1.08; 95 % CI 1.01 to 1.17; fixed effects model: RR = 1.07; 95 % CI 1.01 to 1.12). The remaining five were conducted in three RCTs, which suggested that mind-body interventions were effective in improving several aspects of quality of life, including interference with activity (random effects and fixed effects models: SMD = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.41 to 0.86), body image (random effects model: SMD = 0.36; 95 % CI 0.06 to 0.67; fixed effects model: SMD = 0.33; 95 % CI 0.11 to 0.55), health worry (random effects and fixed effects models: SMD = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.44 to 0.90), food avoidance (random effects and fixed effects models: SMD = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.23 to 0.68), and social reaction (random effects model: SMD = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.47 to 1.12; fixed effects model: SMD = 0.78; 95 % CI 0.55 to 1.01), as measured by Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life Questionnaire ( IBS-QOL).
      CONCLUSION: Mind-body interventions may have the potential to improve GI symptoms in Chinese patients with IBS. The improvement of GI symptoms was also accompanied with the improvement of various outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and quality of life, just to mention a few. However, the published studies generally had significant methodological limitations. Future clinical trials with rigorous research design are needed in this field. More studies focusing on the mind-body interventions originated in China, such as tai chi and qi gong should be encouraged.

      PMID: 27646279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. -
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      The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

      Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:1813979

      Authors: Chang WD, Chen S, Lee CL, Lin HY, Lai PT

      Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect.

      PMID: 27635148 [PubMed]

    • Sleep deprivation: a mind-body approach. -
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      Sleep deprivation: a mind-body approach.

      Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016 Nov;22(6):583-8

      Authors: Aguirre CC

      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments.
      RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that sleep plays a vital role in neuro-immuno-endocrine homeostasis. Sleep loss has been linked to elevated risks for cognitive and mood disorders, underscored by impaired synaptic transmission. The glymphatic system has been shown to be modulated by sleep and implicated in neurodegenerative disorders.
      SUMMARY: Interactions between sleep quality, the immune system, and neurodegenerative disease are complex and a challenge to distil. These interactions are frequently bidirectional, because of sleep's characterization as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to the development and progression of mood and cognitive disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

      PMID: 27583670 [PubMed - in process]

    • Mind-Body Therapies in Children and Youth. -
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      Mind-Body Therapies in Children and Youth.

      Pediatrics. 2016 Sep;138(3):


      Mind-body therapies are popular and are ranked among the top 10 complementary and integrative medicine practices reportedly used by adults and children in the 2007-2012 National Health Interview Survey. A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness and safety of mind-body therapies in pediatrics. This clinical report outlines popular mind-body therapies for children and youth and examines the best-available evidence for a variety of mind-body therapies and practices, including biofeedback, clinical hypnosis, guided imagery, meditation, and yoga. The report is intended to help health care professionals guide their patients to nonpharmacologic approaches to improve concentration, help decrease pain, control discomfort, or ease anxiety.

      PMID: 27550982 [PubMed - in process]

    • Attitudes Toward Combining Psychological, Mind-Body Therapies and Nutritional Approaches for the Enhancement of Mood. -
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      Attitudes Toward Combining Psychological, Mind-Body Therapies and Nutritional Approaches for the Enhancement of Mood.

      Adv Mind Body Med. 2016;30(3):19-25

      Authors: Lores TJ, Henke M, Chur-Hansen A

      Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the development of targeted treatment programs for mood is warranted.

      PMID: 27541054 [PubMed - in process]

    • The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State. -
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      The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State.

      PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0159841

      Authors: Jung YH, Ha TM, Oh CY, Lee US, Jang JH, Kim J, Park JO, Kang DH

      The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.

      PMID: 27479499 [PubMed - in process]

    • Mind-body therapy via videoconferencing in patients with neurofibromatosis: An RCT. -
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      Mind-body therapy via videoconferencing in patients with neurofibromatosis: An RCT.

      Neurology. 2016 Aug 23;87(8):806-14

      Authors: Vranceanu AM, Riklin E, Merker VL, Macklin EA, Park ER, Plotkin SR

      OBJECTIVE: To test, within a single-blind randomized controlled trial, the feasibility, acceptability, efficacy, and durability of a mind-body program (the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program for neurofibromatosis [3RP-NF]) vs an attention placebo control (Health Enhancement Program for NF [HEP-NF]), both delivered via group videoconferencing.
      METHODS: Sixty-three patients completed baseline assessments and were randomized. Primary outcomes were physical health and psychological quality of life (QoL), measured by the WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organization QoL abbreviated instrument). Secondary outcomes were social relations and environment QoL, depression, anxiety, pain intensity, and pain interference.
      RESULTS: Sixty-three participants completed the intervention (100%) and 52 the 6-month follow-up (82.5%). Acceptability was 4.1 (5-point scale). Patients in the 3RP-NF showed greater improvement in physical health QoL (7.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-15.10; p = 0.040), psychological QoL (5.57; 95% CI: 0.17-11.34; p = 0.056), social relations QoL (10.95; 95% CI: 1.57-20.31; p = 0.021), environment QoL (8.02; 95% CI: 2.57-13.48; p = 0.005), and anxiety (-2.32; 95% CI: -3.96 to 0.69; p = 0.006) compared to those in HEP-NF, and gains were maintained at follow-up. Patients in the 3RP-NF did not improve more than those in HEP-NF on depression, with both groups showing improvement. Patients in the 3RP-NF with baseline pain ≥5 of 10 showed improvement in pain intensity from baseline to posttest (1.30; 95% CI: -2.26 to -0.34; p = 0.009) with effects maintained at follow-up; this improvement was not greater than that in HEP-NF. There were more treatment responders in the 3RP-NF group (p < 0.05).
      CONCLUSIONS: The 3RP-NF delivered via videoconferencing was highly feasible and accepted by patients, and resulted in sustained improvement in QoL.
      CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with NF, a mind-body program is superior to an attention placebo control in improving QoL.

      PMID: 27449066 [PubMed - in process]

    • Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review. -
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      Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review.

      Nurs Res Pract. 2016;2016:9018036

      Authors: Budhrani-Shani P, Berry DL, Arcari P, Langevin H, Wayne PM

      Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation.

      PMID: 27446610 [PubMed]

    • The effect of Mind Body Medicine course on medical student empathy: a pilot study. -
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      The effect of Mind Body Medicine course on medical student empathy: a pilot study.

      Med Educ Online. 2016;21:31196

      Authors: Chen AK, Kumar A, Haramati A

      INTRODUCTION: Empathy among medical practitioners has been shown to affect patient care and outcomes. Factors such as stress and depression are known to have a negative impact on medical student empathy. Approaches such as mindfulness, meditation, and other mind-body techniques can enhance empathy and reverse burnout symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated impact of Mind Body Medicine (MBM) course on perceived stress and empathy on first-year medical students.
      METHODS: Thirteen first-year medical students in total self-selected into MBM (experimental) and seven non-MBM (control) groups completed a prospective, pre- and post-test analysis, using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Students (JSPE-S), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ) to evaluate empathy, stress, and depression, respectively.
      RESULTS: Our results showed an increase in stress, as well as a decrease in empathy, in both MBM and non-MBM groups throughout the course of the study.
      CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the inverse relationship increased stress and decreased empathy among first-year medical students and participation in the MBM course did not attenuate the changes. However, a statistically significant rise in the depression score in the non-MBM group was not observed in the MBM group.

      PMID: 27357909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    • Expectancy Effect in Three Mind-Body Clinical Trials. -
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      Expectancy Effect in Three Mind-Body Clinical Trials.

      J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2016 Oct;21(4):NP103-9

      Authors: Hicks M, Hanes D, Wahbeh H

      Expectancy, arguably the prime component of the placebo effect, has been shown to significantly modify the effects of many treatments. Furthermore, various forms of mind-body interventions have demonstrated effective improvements in outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pretreatment expectations and symptom reduction in a secondary analysis of 3 mind-body intervention programs. An adjusted correlation and regression analysis compared data from a 6-question expectancy questionnaire to a self-reported clinical impression of change score. Only 1 of the 6 expectancy questions in 1 of the 3 studies reached significance (B = 0.087; P = .025). The combined data from all 3 studies did not reveal significant expectancy effects. The positive effects of mindfulness meditation appear to be independent of an expectancy effect.

      PMID: 27269794 [PubMed - in process]

    • A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability. -
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      A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability.

      Complement Ther Med. 2016 Jun;26:98-107

      Authors: Innes KE, Selfe TK, Khalsa DS, Kandati S

      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of two simple home-based relaxation programs in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline, a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease.
      DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants were randomized to a beginner Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) program or a music listening (ML) program. Participants were asked to practice 12min daily for the first 12 weeks, then as often as they liked for the following 3 months. Participants underwent assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 6 months to evaluate changes in key outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated by measuring recruitment and retention rates, assessment visit attendance, practice adherence, and treatment expectancy; exit questionnaires completed at 12 weeks and 6 months provided additional data regarding participant experience with the study, perceived barriers to and facilitators of practice, reasons for drop-out, and views regarding the assigned intervention.
      RESULTS: Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6 month study. Adherence in both groups was excellent, with participants completing 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions on average in the first 12 weeks, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3 month, practice-optional, follow-up period. At week 12, over 80% of participants indicated they were likely to continue practicing following study completion. Responses to both structured and open-ended exit questionnaire items also suggested high satisfaction with both programs.
      CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this RCT of a beginner meditation practice and a simple ML program suggest that both programs were well accepted and the practices are feasible in adults with early memory loss.

      PMID: 27261989 [PubMed - in process]

    • The Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical Humanities -
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      The Edinburgh Companion to the Critical Medical Humanities

      Book. 2016 06 30

      Authors: Atkinson S, Macnaughton J, Richards J, Whitehead A, Woods A

      A properly critical medical humanities is also a historically grounded medical humanities. Such historical grounding requires taking a long cultural perspective, going beyond traditional medical history – typically the history of disease, treatment and practice – to trace the origins and development of the ideas that underpin medicine in its broadest sense – ideas concerning the most fundamental aspects of human existence: health and illness, body and mind, gender and family, care and community.() Historical sources can only go so far in illuminating such topics; we must also look to other cultural texts, and in particular literary texts, which, through their imaginative worlds, provide crucial insights into cultural and intellectual attitudes, experience and creativity. Reading from a critical medical humanities perspective requires not only cultural archaeology across a range of discourses, but also putting past and present into conversation, to discover continuities and contrasts with later perspectives. Medical humanities research is illuminated by cultural and literary studies, and also brings to them new ways of seeing; the relation is dynamic. This chapter explores the ways mind, body and affect are constructed and intersect in medieval thought and literature, with a particular focus on how voice-hearing and visionary experience are portrayed and understood. Pre-Cartesian perspectives chime surprisingly closely with current approaches, illuminate the complex inter-relations of mind and body, and probe the power of affect in resonant and suggestive ways. They also open on to ways of understanding that are less accessible in the secularised, progressive world of the twenty-first century.

      PMID: 27536759

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